ENGLISH ELECTRONIC LEARNING

WEB SPACE FOR ENGLISH STUDENTS

COMPUTER SCIENCES

ANUNCIO

ESTIMADOS ESTUDIANTES

LA PROFESORA LINA JAIMES SE ENCARGARÁ DE LAS CLASES DE INGLES DURANTE MI AUSENCIA POR LO QUE LES PIDO EL FAVOR DE ASISTIR NORMALMENTE A LAS CLASES DE INGLES I E INGLES III EN LOS HORARIOS:LUNES, MIERCOLES, JUEVES Y SABADO SEGUN CORRESPONDE. ESTO CON EL FIN DE NO PERDER LAS CLASES Y AJUSTARNOS A LAS POLÍTICAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD EN BIEN DE LOS ESTUDIANTES Y DESARROLLO DEL PROGRAMA DE LOS CURSOS. ELLA CONTINUARÁ TRABAJANDO EL MATERIAL DISPUESTO EN EL BLOG, POR LO QUE DEBEN LLEVAR LAS COPIAS REQUERIDAS EN EL DESARROLLO DE LAS CLASES.
AGRADECIENDO SU COMPRENSION Y ASISTENCIA A CLASES.

JOSUE JAIMES C.


GUIDE NRO 1 FUSAN
THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER SCIENCES

Many products used in everyday life now incorporate computer systems: programmable, computer-controlled VCRs in the living room, programmable microwave ovens in the kitchen, programmable thermostats to control heating and cooling systems—the list seems endless. This section will survey a few of the major areas where computers currently have—or will likely soon have—a major impact on society. As noted below, computer technology not only has solved problems but also has created some, including a certain amount of culture shock as individuals attempt to deal with the new technology. A major role of computer science has been to alleviate such problems, mainly by making computer systems cheaper, faster, more reliable, and easier to use.
Impact of computer systems » Computers in the workplace
Computers are omnipresent in the workplace. Word processors—computer software packages that simplify the creation and modification of textual documents—have largely replaced the typewriter. Electronic mail has made it easy to transmit textual messages (possibly containing embedded picture and sound files) worldwide, using computers, cellular telephones, and specially equipped televisions via telephone, satellite, and cable television networks. Office automation has become the term for linking workstations, printers, database systems, and other tools by means of a local area network (LAN). An eventual goal of office automation has been termed the “paperless office.” Although such changes ultimately make office work much more efficient, they have not been without cost in purchasing and frequently upgrading the necessary hardware and software and in training workers to use the new technology.
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is a relatively new technology arising from the application of many computer science subdisciplines to support the manufacturing enterprise. The technology of CIM emphasizes that all aspects of manufacturing should be not only computerized as much as possible but also linked into an integrated whole via a computer communication network. For example, the design engineer’s workstation should be linked into the overall system so that design specifications and manufacturing instructions may be sent automatically to the shop floor. The inventory databases should be linked in as well, so product inventories may be incremented automatically and supply inventories decremented as manufacturing proceeds. An automated inspection system (or a manual inspection station supplied with online terminal entry) should be linked to a quality-control system that maintains a database of quality information and alerts the manager if quality is deteriorating and possibly even provides a diagnosis as to the source of any problems that arise. Automatically tracking the flow of products from station to station on the factory floor allows an analysis program to identify bottlenecks and recommend replacement of faulty equipment. In short, CIM has the potential to enable manufacturers to build cheaper, higher quality products and thus improve their competitiveness. Implementing CIM is initially costly, of course, and progress in carrying out this technology has been slowed not only by its cost but also by the lack of standardized interfaces between the various CIM components and by the slow acceptance of standardized communication protocols to support integration. Although the ideal of CIM is perhaps just beyond reach at the present time, manufacturers are now able to improve their operations by, for example, linking robot controllers to mainframes for easy and correct downloading of revised robot instructions. Also available are elaborate software packages that simplify the building of databases for such applications as inventories, personnel statistics, and quality control and that incorporate tools for data analysis and decision support.

GUIDE NRO 2
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Basic Questions
Q. What is artificial intelligence?
A. It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.
Q. Yes, but what is intelligence?
A. Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines.
Q. Isn’t there a solid definition of intelligence that doesn’t depend on relating it to human intelligence?
A. Not yet. The problem is that we cannot yet characterize in general what kinds of computational procedures we want to call intelligent. We understand some of the mechanisms of intelligence and not others.
Q. Is intelligence a single thing so that one can ask a yes or no question “Is this machine intelligent or not?”?
A. No. Intelligence involves mechanisms, and AI research has discovered how to make computers carry out some of them and not others. If doing a task requires only mechanisms that are well understood today, computer programs can give very impressive performances on these tasks. Such programs should be considered “somewhat intelligent”.
Q. Isn’t AI about simulating human intelligence?
A. Sometimes but not always or even usually. On the one hand, we can learn something about how to make machines solve problems by observing other people or just by observing our own methods. On the other hand, most work in AI involves studying the problems the world presents to intelligence rather than studying people or animals. AI researchers are free to use methods that are not observed in people or that involve much more computing than people can do.
Q. What about IQ? Do computer programs have IQs?
A. No. IQ is based on the rates at which intelligence develops in children. It is the ratio of the age at which a child normally makes a certain score to the child’s age. The scale is extended to adults in a suitable way. IQ correlates well with various measures of success or failure in life, but making computers that can score high on IQ tests would be weakly correlated with their usefulness. For example, the ability of a child to repeat back a long sequence of digits correlates well with other intellectual abilities, perhaps because it measures how much information the child can compute with at once. However, “digit span” is trivial for even extremely limited computers.
However, some of the problems on IQ tests are useful challenges for AI.
Q. What about other comparisons between human and computer intelligence?
Arthur R. Jensen [Jen98], a leading researcher in human intelligence, suggests “as a heuristic hypothesis” that all normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to “quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions”. I see them as speed, short term memory, and the ability to form accurate and retrievable long term memories.
Whether or not Jensen is right about human intelligence, the situation in AI today is the reverse.
Computer programs have plenty of speed and memory but their abilities correspond to the intellectual mechanisms that program designers understand well enough to put in programs. Some abilities that children normally don’t develop till they are teenagers may be in, and some abilities possessed by two year olds are still out. The matter is further complicated by the fact that the cognitive sciences still have not succeeded in determining exactly what the human abilities are. Very likely the organization of the intellectual mechanisms for AI can usefully be different from that in people.
Whenever people do better than computers on some task or computers use a lot of computation to do as well as people, this demonstrates that the program designers lack understanding of the intellectual mechanisms required to do the task efficiently.
Q. When did AI research start?
A. After WWII, a number of people independently started to work on intelligent machines. The English mathematician Alan Turing may have been the first. He gave a lecture on it in 1947. He also may have been the first to decide that AI was best researched by programming computers rather than by building machines. By the late 1950s, there were many researchers on AI, and most of them were basing their work on programming computers.
Q. Does AI aim to put the human mind into the computer?
A. Some researchers say they have that objective, but maybe they are using the phrase metaphorically. The human mind has a lot of peculiarities, and I’m not sure anyone is serious about imitating all of them.
Q. What is the Turing test?
A. Alan Turing’s 1950 article Computing Machinery and Intelligence [Tur50] discussed conditions for considering a machine to be intelligent. He argued that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent. This test would satisfy most people but not all philosophers. The observer could interact with the machine and a human by teletype (to avoid requiring that the machine imitate the appearance or voice of the person), and the human would try to persuade the observer that it was human and the machine would try to fool the observer.
The Turing test is a one-sided test. A machine that passes the test should certainly be considered intelligent, but a machine could still be considered intelligent without knowing enough about humans to imitate a human.
Daniel Dennett’s book Brainchildren has an excellent discussion of the Turing test and the various partial Turing tests that have been implemented, i.e. with restrictions on the observer’s knowledge of AI and the subject matter of questioning. It turns out that some people are easily led into believing that a rather dumb program is intelligent.
Q. Does AI aim at human-level intelligence?
A. Yes. The ultimate effort is to make computer programs that can solve problems and achieve goals in the world as well as humans. However, many people involved in particular research areas are much less ambitious.
Q. How far is AI from reaching human-level intelligence? When will it happen?
A. A few people think that human-level intelligence can be achieved by writing large numbers of programs of the kind people are now writing and assembling vast knowledge bases of facts in the languages now used for expressing knowledge.

Language

The prevalent language for communication on the Internet is English. This may be a result of the Internet’s origins, as well as English’s role as a lingua franca. It may also be related to the poor capability of early computers, largely originating in the United States, to handle characters other than those in the English variant of the Latin alphabet.

After English (30% of Web visitors) the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (17%), Spanish (9%), Japanese (7%), French (5%) and German (5%).[8]

By continent, 38% of the world’s Internet users are based in Asia, 27% in Europe, 18% in North America, 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 7% in Australia.[6]

The Internet’s technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in most widely used languages.

Internet and the workplace

The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections and Web applications.

The Internet viewed on mobile devices

The Internet can now be accessed virtually anywhere by numerous means. Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet from anywhere there is a cellular network supporting that device’s technology.

Within the limitations imposed by the small screen and other limited facilities of such a pocket-sized device, all the services of the Internet, including email and web browsing, may be available in this way. Service providers may restrict the range of these services and charges for data access may be significant, compared to home usage.

Common uses

E-mail The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Even today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal e-mail systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender’s and the recipient’s control. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or organization’s network, are much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing, the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them.
The World Wide WeB
Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (or just the Web) interchangeably, but, as discussed above, the two terms are not synonymous.

The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the web servers and other machines that store originals, and cached copies, of these resources to deliver them as required using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet.

Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data.

Software products that can access the resources of the Web are correctly termed user agents. In normal use, web browsers, such as Internet Explorer and Firefox, access web pages and allow users to navigate from one to another via hyperlinks. Web documents may contain almost any combination of computer data including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content including games, office applications and scientific demonstrations.

Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google, millions of people worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme decentralization of information and data.

Using the Web, it is also easier than ever before for individuals and organisations to publish ideas and information to an extremely large audience. Anyone can find ways to publish a web page, a blog or build a website for very little initial cost. Publishing and maintaining large, professional websites full of attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition, however.

Many individuals and some companies and groups use “web logs” or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. Some commercial organisations encourage staff to fill them with advice on their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result. One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public’s interest in their work.

Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts.

Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.

In the early days, web pages were usually created as sets of complete and isolated HTML text files stored on a web server. More recently, websites are more often created using content management system (CMS) or wiki software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or other organisation or members of the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.

GUIDE NR 4
OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses “objects” and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. Programming techniques may include features such as encapsulation, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. It was not commonly used in mainstream software application development until the early 1990s. Many modern programming languages now support OOP.
Overview
Object-oriented programming can trace its roots to the 1960s. As hardware and software became increasingly complex, quality was often compromised. Researchers studied ways in which software quality could be maintained. Object-oriented programming was deployed in part as an attempt to address this problem by strongly emphasizing discrete units of programming logic and re-usability in software. The computer programming methodology focuses on data rather than processes, with programs composed of self-sufficient modules (objects) containing all the information needed within its own data structure for manipulation.
The Simula programming language was the first to introduce the concepts underlying object-oriented programming (objects, classes, subclasses, virtual methods, coroutines, garbage collection, and discrete event simulation) as a superset of Algol. Simula was used for physical modeling, such as models to study and improve the movement of ships and their content through cargo ports. Smalltalk was the first programming language to be called “object-oriented”.
Object-oriented programming may be seen as a collection of cooperating objects, as opposed to a traditional view in which a program may be seen as a group of tasks to compute (“subroutines”). In OOP, each object is capable of receiving messages, processing data, and sending messages to other objects.
Each object can be viewed as an independent little machine with a distinct role or responsibility. The actions or “operators” on the objects are closely associated with the object. For example, in object oriented programming, the data structures tend to carry their own operators around with them (or at least “inherit” them from a similar object or “class”). The traditional approach tends to view and consider data and behavior separately.
Fundamental concepts
A survey by Deborah J. Armstrong [1] of nearly 40 years of computing literature identified a number of ‘quarks’, or fundamental concepts, found in the strong majority of definitions of OOP. They are the following:
Class
Defines the abstract characteristics of a thing (object), including the thing’s characteristics (its attributes, fields or properties) and the thing’s behaviors (the things it can do, or methods, operations or features). One might say that a class is a blueprint or factory that describes the nature of something. For example, the class Dog would consist of traits shared by all dogs, such as breed and fur color (characteristics), and the ability to bark and sit (behaviors). Classes provide modularity and structure in an object-oriented computer program. A class should typically be recognizable to a non-programmer familiar with the problem domain, meaning that the characteristics of the class should make sense in context. Also, the code for a class should be relatively self-contained (generally using encapsulation). Collectively, the properties and methods defined by a class are called members.
Object
A pattern (exemplar) of a class. The class of Dog defines all possible dogs by listing the characteristics and behaviors they can have; the object Lassie is one particular dog, with particular versions of the characteristics. A Dog has fur; Lassie has brown-and-white fur.
Instance
One can have an instance of a class or a particular object. The instance is the actual object created at runtime. In programmer jargon, the Lassie object is an instance of the Dog class. The set of values of the attributes of a particular object is called its state. The object consists of state and the behaviour that’s defined in the object’s class.
Method

Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander English
Present Perfect
FORM Present Perfect

[HAS / HAVE] + [past participle]

EXAMPLES:
I have seen that movie many times.

I have never seen that movie.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as Present Perfect (have seen), adverbs usually come between the first part and the second part (have never seen).
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now
We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with time expressions such as “yesterday,” “one year ago,” “last week,” “when I was a chlid,” “when I lived in Japan,” “at that moment,” “that day” or “one day.” We CAN use the Present Perfect with expressions like “ever,” “never,” “once,” “many times,” “several times,” “before,” “so far,” “already” and “yet.”

EXAMPLES:
I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
Has there ever been a war in the United States?
Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
People have traveled to the moon.
IMPORTANT How do you actually use the Present Perfect?
The concept of “unspecified time” can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, “I have the experience of…” You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

EXAMPLES:

I have been to France.
(This sentence means that you have the experience of being to France. Maybe you have been once, or several times.)

I have been to France three times.
(You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.)

I have never been to France.
(This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.)

I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
Have you ever met him?
No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.

EXAMPLES:

You have grown since the last time I saw you.
The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.

My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.

EXAMPLES:

Man has walked on the moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action.

EXAMPLES:

James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn’t mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn’t stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which occured in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.

EXAMPLES:

The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick

IMPORTANT

When we use the Present Perfect it means that something happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.

Sometimes we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. Expressions such as “in the last week,” “in the last year,” “this week,” “this month,” “so far” and “up to now” can be used to narrow the time we are looking in for an experience.

EXAMPLES:

Have you been to Mexico in the last year.
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
This week my car has broken down three times.

NOTICE
“Last year” and “in the last year” are very different in meaning. “Last year” means the year before now. “In the last year” means from 365 days ago until now.

EXAMPLES:

I went to Mexico last year.
(I went to Mexico in 1998.)

I have been to Mexico in the last year.
(I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now. We do not know exactly when.)
USE 2 Duration From Past Until Now (Non-continuous Verbs)

With Non-continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. “For five minutes,” “for two weeks” and “since Tuesday” are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.

EXAMPLES:

I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
ACTIVE / PASSIVE Present Perfect

EXAMPLES:
Many tourists have visited that castle. ACTIVE
That castle has been visited by many tourists. PASSIVE

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