ENGLISH ELECTRONIC LEARNING

WEB SPACE FOR ENGLISH STUDENTS

ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTURE

The term architecture can be used to mean a process, a profession or documentation.
As a process, architecture is the activity of designing and constructing buildings and other physical structures by a person or a machine, primarily to provide socially purposeful shelter. A wider definition often includes the design of the total built environment, from the macro level of how a building integrates with its surrounding man made landscape (see town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture) to the micro level of architectural or construction details and, sometimes, furniture. Wider still, architecture is the activity of designing any kind of system.
As a profession, architecture is the role of those persons or machines providing architectural services.

As documentation, usually based on drawings, architecture defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.

Architects have as their primary object providing for the spatial and shelter needs of people in groups of some kind (families, schools, churches, businesses, etc.) by the creative organisation of materials and components in a land- or city-scape, dealing with mass, space, form, volume, texture, structure, light, shadow, materials, program, and pragmatic elements such as cost, construction limitations and technology, to achieve an end which is functional, economical, practical and often with artistic and aesthetic aspects. This distinguishes architecture from engineering design, which has as its primary object the creative manipulation of materials and forms using mathematical and scientific principles.

Separate from the design process, architecture is also experienced through the senses, which therefore gives rise to aural, visual, olfactory, and tactile architecture. As people move through a space, architecture is experienced as a time sequence. Even though our culture considers architecture to be a visual experience, the other senses play a role in how we experience both natural and built environments. Attitudes towards the senses depend on culture.The design process and the sensory experience of a space are distinctly separate views, each with its own language and assumptions.

Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations are often known primarily through their architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are an important link in public consciousness, even when scholars have discovered much about a past civilization through other means. Cities, regions and cultures continue to identify themselves with (and are known by) their architectural monuments.[7]

The Architect

Architecture as a profession, is the practice of providing architectural services. The practice of architecture includes the planning, designing and oversight of a building’s construction by an architect. Architectural services typically address both feasibility and cost for the builder, as well as function and aesthetics for the user.

Architecture did not start to become professionalized until the late nineteenth century. Before then, architects had ateliers and architectural education varied, from a more formal training as at the École des Beaux-Arts in France, which was founded in the mid seventeenth century, to the more informal system where students worked in an atelier until they could become independent. There were also so-called gentlemen architects, which were architects with private means. This was a tradition particularly strong in England during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Lord Burlington, designer of Chiswick House, (1723-49) is an example. Some architects were also sculptors, such as Bernini, theater designers such as Filippo Juvarra and John Vanbrugh, and painters, such as Michelangelo and Le Corbusier.

In the 1440s, the Florentine architect, Alberti, wrote his De Re Aedificatoria, published in 1485, a year before the first edition of Vitruvius, with which he was already familiar.[10][11] Alberti gives the earliest definition of the role of the architect. The architect is to be concerned firstly with the construction. This encompasses all the practical matters of site, of materials and their limitations and of human capability. The second concern is “articulation”; the building must work and must please and suit the needs of those who use it. The third concern of the architect is aesthetics, both of proportion and of ornament.

The role of the architect is constantly evolving, and is central to the design and implementation of the environments in which people live. In order to obtain the skills and knowledge required to design, plan, and oversee a diverse range of projects, architects must go through extensive formal education, coupled with a requisite amount of professional practice.

 

GRAMMAR

 

 

Past Continuous
I was sleeping. I wasn’t We were sleeping. We weren’t
He was sleeping. He wasn’t You were sleeping. You weren’t
She was sleeping. She wasn’t They were sleeping. They weren’t
It was sleeping. It wasn’t sleeping.

A Specific Time in the Past

The Past Continuous is used to express an event in progress at some specific time in the past.

I was eating at 8:00 this morning.

She was cooking in the afternoon.

Background to Events

The Past Continuous is also used to give background
to past events.

I lost my wallet while I was jogging.    I was eating when you called.

Short Answers

Was I sleeping? Yes, I was. No, I wasn’t.
Was he sleeping? Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t.
Was she sleeping? Yes, she was. No, she wasn’t.
Was it sleeping? Yes, it was. No, it wasn’t.
Were we sleeping? Yes, we were. No, we weren’t.
Were you sleeping? Yes, you were. No, you weren’t.
Were they sleeping? Yes, they were. No, they weren’t.

Practice Dialog

A:    What are you doing?


B:    I’m warming up dinner in the microwave.


A:    I thought you already warmed it up.
 

B:    I did. But while I was warming it up my wife called.

 
It got cold so I’m warming it up again.

 

Advertisements

September 3, 2008 - Posted by | Uncategorized

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: